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Education Standards and Skills

Music education provides students with experiences that reach far beyond the music classroom. The standards and skills listed below are taught through music instruction, and educators can use this information to share the many benefits of music education with stakeholders.


​​National Core Arts Standards

The National Core Music Standards are designed to guide music educators as they help their students achieve the goal of independent music literacy. The structure of the standards organizes outcomes by Artistic Process, thereby facilitating sequential instruction while also authentically reflecting the way musicians think and work.

All music performance standards are grouped under the Artistic Processes of Creating, Performing, Responding, and Connecting:

Creating: Conceiving and developing new artistic ideas and work.
Performing: Realizing artistic ideas and work through interpretation and presentation. 
Responding: Understanding and evaluating how the arts convey meaning.
Connecting: Relating artistic ideas and work with personal meaning and external context.

1.  Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work.
2.  Organize and develop artistic ideas and work.
3.  Refine and complete artistic work.
4.  Analyze, interpret, and select artistic work for presentation.
5.  Develop and refine artistic work for presentation.
6.  Convey meaning through the presentation of artistic work.
7.  Perceive and analyze artistic work.
8.  Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work. 
9.  Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
10. Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
11. Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural, and historical context to deepen understanding.

​1994 National Standards of Music Education

While we make the transition to the National Core Arts Standards, the original National Standards of Music are provided below, with grade-level achievement standards for reference.

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students sing independently, on pitch and in rhythm, with appropriate timbre, diction, and posture, and maintain a steady tempo
  • Students sing expressively, with appropriate dynamics, phrasing, and interpretation
  • Students sing from memory a varied repertoire of songs representing genres and styles from diverse cultures
  • Students sing ostinatos, partner songs, and rounds
  • Students sing in groups, blending vocal timbres, matching dynamic levels, and responding to the cues of a conductor

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students sing accurately and with good breath control throughout their singing ranges, alone and in small and large ensembles
  • Students sing with expression and technical accuracy a repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some songs performed from memory
  • Students sing music representing diverse genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed
  • Students sing music written in two and three parts
  • Students who participate in a choral ensemble sing with expression and technical accuracy a varied repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some songs performed from memory

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students sing with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 4, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some songs performed from memory
  • Students sing music written in four parts, with and without accompaniment
  • Students demonstrate well-developed ensemble skills 

Advanced: 

  • Students sing with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of vocal literature with a level of difficulty of 5, on a scale of 1 to 6
  • Students sing music written in more than four parts
  • Students sing in small ensembles with one student on a part

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students perform on pitch, in rhythm, with appropriate dynamics and timbre, and maintain a steady tempo
  • Students perform easy rhythmic, melodic, and chordal patterns accurately and independently on rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic classroom instruments
  • Students perform expressively a varied repertoire of music representing diverse genres and styles
  • Students echo short rhythms and melodic patterns
  • Students perform in groups, blending instrumental timbres, matching dynamic levels, and responding to the cues of a conductor
  • Students perform independent instrumental parts (e.g., simple rhythmic or melodic ostinatos, contrasting rhythmic lines, harmonic progressions, and chords) while other students sing or play contrasting parts

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students perform on at least one instrument (e.g., band or orchestra instrument, keyboard instrument, fretted instrument, electronic instrument) accurately and independently, alone and in small and large ensembles, with good posture, good playing position, and good breath, bow, or stick control
  • Students perform with expression and technical accuracy on at least one string, wind, percussion, or classroom instrument a repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6
  • Students perform music representing diverse genres and cultures, with expression appropriate for the work being performed
  • Students play by ear simple melodies on a melodic instrument and simple accompaniments on a harmonic instrument
  • Students who participate in an instrumental ensemble or class perform with expression and technical accuracy a varied repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6, including some solos performed from memory

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students perform with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 4, on a scale of 1 to 6
  • Students perform an appropriate part in an ensemble, demonstrating well-developed ensemble skills
  • Students perform in small ensembles with one student on a part 

Advanced: 

  • Students perform with expression and technical accuracy a large and varied repertoire of instrumental literature with a level of difficulty of 5, on a scale of 1 to 6

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students improvise "answers" in the same style to given rhythmic and melodic phrases
  • Students improvise simple rhythmic and melodic ostinato accompaniments
  • Students improvise simple rhythmic variations and simple melodic embellishments on familiar melodies
  • Students improvise short songs and instrumental pieces, using a variety of sound sources, including traditional sounds (e.g., voices, instruments), nontraditional sounds available in the classroom (e.g., paper tearing, pencil tapping), body sounds (e.g., hands clapping, fingers snapping), and sounds produced by electronic means (e.g., personal computers and basic MIDI devices, including keyboards, sequencers, synthesizers, and drum machines)

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students improvise simple harmonic accompaniments
  • Students improvise melodic embellishments and simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and melodies in major keys
  • Students improvise short melodies, unaccompanied and over given rhythmic accompaniments, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality

9-12 Achievement Standard
 

Proficient: 

  • Students improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts
  • Students improvise rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and melodies in major and minor keys
  • Students improvise original melodies over given chord progressions, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality

Advanced: 

  • Students improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts in a variety of styles
  • Students improvise original melodies in a variety of styles, over given chord progressions, each in a consistent style, meter, and tonality

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students create and arrange music to accompany readings or dramatizations
  • Students create and arrange short songs and instrumental pieces within specified guidelines (e.g., a particular style, form, instrumentation, compositional technique)
  • Students use a variety of sound sources when composing

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students compose short pieces within specified guidelines (e.g., a particular style, form, instrumentation, compositional technique), demonstrating how the elements of music are used to achieve unity and variety, tension and release, and balance
  • Students arrange simple pieces for voices or instruments other than those for which the pieces were written
  • Students use a variety of traditional and nontraditional sound sources and electronic media when composing and arranging

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students compose music in several distinct styles, demonstrating creativity in using the elements of music for expressive effect
  • Students arrange pieces for voices or instruments other than those for which the pieces were written in ways that preserve or enhance the expressive effect of the music
  • Students compose and arrange music for voices and various acoustic and electronic instruments, demonstrating knowledge of the ranges and traditional usages of the sound sources 

Advanced: 

  • Students compose music, demonstrating imagination and technical skill in applying the principles of composition

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students read whole, half, dotted half, quarter, and eighth notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 meter signatures
  • Students use a system (that is, syllables, numbers, or letters) to read simple pitch notation in the treble clef in major keys
  • Students identify symbols and traditional terms referring to dynamics, tempo, and articulation and interpret them correctly when performing
  • Students use standard symbols to notate meter, rhythm, pitch, and dynamics in simple patterns presented by the teacher

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8, and alla breve meter signatures
  • Students read at sight simple melodies in both the treble and bass clefs
  • Students identify and define standard notation symbols for pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, articulation, and expression
  • Students use standard notation to record their musical ideas and the musical ideas of others
  • Students who participate in a choral or instrumental ensemble or class sightread, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 2, on a scale of 1 to 6

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students demonstrate the ability to read an instrumental or vocal score of up to four staves by describing how the elements of music are used
  • Students who participate in a choral or instrumental ensemble or class sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 3, on a scale of 1 to 6 

Advanced: 

  • Students demonstrate the ability to read a full instrumental or vocal score by describing how the elements of music are used and explaining all transpositions and clefs
  • Students interpret nonstandard notation symbols used by some 20th century composers
  • Students who participate in a choral or instrumental ensemble or class sight-read, accurately and expressively, music with a level of difficulty of 4, on a scale of 1 to 6

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students identify simple music forms when presented aurally
  • Students demonstrate perceptual skills by moving, by answering questions about, and by describing aural examples of music of various styles representing diverse cultures
  • Students use appropriate terminology in explaining music, music notation, music instruments and voices, and music performances
  • Students identify the sounds of a variety of instruments, including many orchestra and band instruments, and instruments from various cultures, as well as children's voices and male and female adult voices
  • Students respond through purposeful movement (e.g., swaying, skipping, dramatic play) to selected prominent music characteristics or to specific music events (e.g., meter changes, dynamic changes, same/different sections) while listening to music

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students describe specific music events (e.g., entry of oboe, change of meter, return of refrain) in a given aural example, using appropriate terminology
  • Students analyze the uses of elements of music in aural examples representing diverse genres and cultures
  • Students demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles of meter, rhythm, tonality, intervals, chords, and harmonic progressions in their analyses of music

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students analyze aural examples of a varied repertoire of music, representing diverse genres and cultures, by describing the uses of elements of music and expressive devices
  • Students demonstrate extensive knowledge of the technical vocabulary of music
  • Students identify and explain compositional devices and techniques used to provide unity and variety and tension and release in a musical work and give examples of other works that make similar uses of these devices and techniques 

Advanced: 

  • Students demonstrate the ability to perceive and remember music events by describing in detail significant events (e.g., fugal entrances, chromatic modulations, developmental devices) occurring in a given aural example
  • Students compare ways in which musical materials are used in a given example relative to ways in which they are used in other works of the same genre or style
  • Students analyze and describe uses of the elements of music in a given work that make it unique, interesting, and expressive

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students devise criteria for evaluating performances and compositions
  • Students explain, using appropriate music terminology, their personal preferences for specific musical works and styles

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students develop criteria for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of music performances and compositions and apply the criteria in their personal listening and performing
  • Students evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their own and others' performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations by applying specific criteria appropriate for the style of the music and offer constructive suggestions for improvement

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students evolve specific criteria for making informed, critical evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of performances, compositions, arrangements, and improvisations and apply the criteria in their personal participation in music
  • Students evaluate a performance, composition, arrangement, or improvisation by comparing it to similar or exemplary models 

Advanced: 

  • Students evaluate a given musical work in terms of its aesthetic qualities and explain the musical means it uses to evoke feelings and emotions

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students identify similarities and differences in the meanings of common terms (e.g., form, line, contrast) used in the various arts
  • Students identify ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music (e.g., foreign languages: singing songs in various languages; language arts: using the expressive elements of music in interpretive readings; mathematics: mathematical basis of values of notes, rests, and time signatures; science: vibration of strings, drum heads, or air columns generating sounds used in music; geography: songs associated with various countries or regions)

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students compare in two or more arts how the characteristic materials of each art (that is, sound in music, visual stimuli in visual arts, movement in dance, human interrelationships in theater) can be used to transform similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas into works of art
  • Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music (e.g., language arts: issues to be considered in setting texts to music; mathematics: frequency ratios of intervals; sciences: the human hearing process and hazards to hearing; social studies: historical and social events and movements chronicled in or influenced by musical works)

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students explain how elements, artistic processes (such as imagination or craftsmanship), and organizational principles (such as unity and variety or repetition and contrast) are used in similar and distinctive ways in the various arts and cite examples
  • Students compare characteristics of two or more arts within a particular historical period or style and cite examples from various cultures
  • Students explain ways in which the principles and subject matter of various disciplines outside the arts are interrelated with those of music (e.g., language arts: compare the ability of music and literature to convey images, feelings, and meanings; physics: describe the physical basis of tone production in string, wind, percussion, and electronic instruments and the human voice and of the transformation and perception of sound)  

Advanced: 

  • Students compare the uses of characteristic elements, artistic processes, and organizational principles among the arts in different historical periods and different cultures
  • Students explain how the roles of creators, performers, and others involved in the production and presentation of the arts are similar to and different from one another in the various arts (e.g., creators: painters, composers, choreographers, playwrights; performers: instrumentalists, singers, dancers, actors; others: conductors, costumers, directors, lighting designers)

K-4 Achievement Standard

  • Students identify by genre or style aural examples of music from various historical periods and cultures
  • Students describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples from various cultures of the world
  • Students identify various uses of music in their daily experiences and describe characteristics that make certain music suitable for each use
  • Students identify and describe roles of musicians (e.g., orchestra conductor, folksinger, church organist) in various music settings and cultures
  • Students demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the context and style of music performed

5-8 Achievement Standard

  • Students describe distinguishing characteristics of representative music genres and styles from a variety of cultures
  • Students classify by genre and style (and, if applicable, by historical period, composer, and title) a varied body of exemplary (that is, high-quality and characteristic) musical works and explain the characteristics that cause each work to be considered exemplary
  • Students compare, in several cultures of the world, functions music serves, roles of musicians (e.g., lead guitarist in a rock band, composer of jingles for commercials, singer in Peking opera), and conditions under which music is typically performed

9-12 Achievement Standard


Proficient: 

  • Students classify by genre or style and by historical period or culture unfamiliar but representative aural examples of music and explain the reasoning behind their classifications
  • Students identify sources of American music genres (e.g., swing, Broadway musical, blues) trace the evolution of those genres, and cite well-known musicians associated with them
  • Students identify various roles (e.g., entertainer, teacher, transmitter of cultural tradition) that musicians perform, cite representative individuals who have functioned in each role, and describe their activities and achievements 

Advanced: 

  • Students identify and explain the stylistic features of a given musical work that serve to define its aesthetic tradition and its historical or cultural context
  • Students identify and describe music genres or styles that show the influence of two or more cultural traditions, identify the cultural source of each influence, and trace the historical conditions that produced the synthesis of influences


International Society for Technology in Education

The International Society for Technology in Education Standards (formerly NETS) are the standards for learning, teaching, and leading in the digital age and are widely recognized and adopted worldwide. 

  • Improving higher-order thinking skills, such as problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity
  • Preparing students for their future in a competitive global job market
  • Designing student-centered, project-based, and online learning environments
  • Guiding systemic change in our schools to create digital places of learning
  • Inspiring digital age professional models for working, collaborating, and decisionmaking

1. Facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity.

Teachers use their knowledge of subject matter, teaching and learning, and technology to facilitate experiences that advance student learning, creativity, and innovation in both face-to-face and virtual environments.

  • Promote, support, and model creative and innovative thinking and inventiveness
  • Engage students in exploring real-world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and  resources
  • Promote student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarify students’ conceptual understanding and thinking, planning, and creative processes
  • Model collaborative knowledge construction by engaging in learning with students, colleagues, and others in face-to-face and virtual environments

2. Design and develop digital age learning experiences and assessments.

Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes identified in the NETS.

  • Design or adapt relevant learning experiences that incorporate digital tools and resources to promote student learning and creativity
  • Develop technology-enriched learning environments that enable all students to pursue their individual curiosities and become active participants in setting their own educational goals, managing their own learning, and assessing their own progress
  • Customize and personalize learning activities to address students’ diverse learning styles, working strategies, and abilities using digital tools and resources
  • Provide students with multiple and varied formative and summative assessments aligned with content and technology standards and use resulting data to inform learning and teaching

3. Model digital age work and learning.

Teachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of an innovative professional in a global and digital society.

  • Demonstrate fluency in technology systems and the transfer of current knowledge to new technologies and situations
  • Collaborate with students, peers, parents, and community members using digital tools and resources to support student success and innovation
  • Communicate relevant information and ideas effectively to students, parents, and peers using a variety of digital age media and formats
  • Model and facilitate effective use of current and emerging digital tools to locate, analyze, evaluate, and use information resources to support research and learning

4. Promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility.

Teachers understand local and global societal issues and responsibilities in an evolving digital culture and exhibit legal and ethical behavior in their professional practices.

  • Advocate, model, and teach safe, legal, and ethical use of digital information and technology, including respect for copyright, intellectual property, and the appropriate documentation of sources
  • Address the diverse needs of all learners by using learner-centered strategies providing equitable access to appropriate digital tools and resources
  • Promote and model digital etiquette and responsible social interactions related to the use of technology and information
  • Develop and model cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with colleagues and students of other cultures using digital-age communication and collaboration tools

5. Engage in professional growth and leadership.

Teachers continuously improve their professional practice, model lifelong learning, and exhibit leadership in their school and professional community by promoting and demonstrating the effective use of digital tools and resources.

  • Participate in local and global learning communities to explore creative applications of technology to improve student learning
  • Exhibit leadership by demonstrating a vision of technology infusion, participating in shared decisionmaking and community building, and developing the leadership and technology skills of others
  • Evaluate and reflect on current research and professional practice on a regular basis to make effective use of existing and emerging digital tools and resources in support of student learning
  • Contribute to the effectiveness, vitality, and self-renewal of the teaching profession and of their school and community

1. Creativity and innovation.

Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.

  • Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes
  • Create original works as a means of personal or group expression
  • Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues
  • Identify trends and forecast possibilities

2. Communication and collaboration.

Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media
  • Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems

3. Research and information fluency.

Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks
  • Process data and report results

4. Critical thinking, problem solving, and decisionmaking.

Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions

5.  Digital citizenship.

Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology
  • Exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity
  • Demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning
  • Exhibit leadership for digital citizenship

6. Technology operations and concepts.

Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.

  • Understand and use technology systems
  • Select and use applications effectively and productively
  • Troubleshoot systems and applications
  • Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies


21st Century Skills

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills is a national organization that advocates for 21st century readiness for every student. As the United States continues to compete in a global economy that demands innovation, P21 and its members provide tools and resources to help the U.S. education system keep up by fusing the 3Rs and 4Cs (Critical thinking and problem solving, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity and innovation). While leading districts and schools are already doing this, P21 advocates for local, state, and federal policies that support this approach for every school.


Common Core State Standards

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn so that teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. 

Music educators incorporate the CCSS into their teaching in many ways, and it is essential that we link the benefits of music education to standards. The information below provides a summary of key points and links to the standards most related to music instruction.

Reading

  • The standards establish a “staircase” of increasing complexity in what students must be able to read so that all students are ready for the demands of college‐ and career‐level reading no later than the end of high school. The standards also require the progressive development of reading comprehension so that students advancing through the grades are able to gain more from whatever they read.
  • Through reading a diverse array of classic and contemporary literature, as well as challenging informational texts in a range of subjects, students are expected to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspective. Because the standards are building blocks for successful classrooms but recognize that teachers, school districts, and states need to decide on appropriate curriculum, they intentionally do not offer a reading list. Instead, they offer numerous sample texts to help teachers prepare for the school year and allow parents and students to know what to expect at the beginning of the year.
  • The standards mandate certain critical types of content for all students, including classic myths and stories from around the world, foundational U.S. documents, seminal works of American literature, and the writings of Shakespeare. The standards appropriately defer the many remaining decisions about what and how to teach to states, districts, and schools.

Writing

  • The ability to write logical arguments based on substantive claims, sound reasoning, and relevant evidence is a cornerstone of the writing standards, with opinion writing—a basic form of argument—extending down into the earliest grades.
  • Research—both short, focused projects (such as those commonly required in the workplace) and longer term, in-depth research—is emphasized throughout the standards but most prominently in the writing strand, since a written analysis and presentation of findings is so often critical.
  • Annotated samples of student writing accompany the standards and help establish adequate performance levels in writing arguments, informational/explanatory texts, and narratives in the various grades.

Speaking and Listening

  • The standards require that students gain, evaluate, and present increasingly complex information, ideas, and evidence through listening and speaking, as well as through media.
  • An important focus of the speaking and listening standards is academic discussion in one‐on‐one, small‐group, and whole‐class settings. Formal presentations are one important way such talk occurs, but so is the more informal discussion that takes place as students collaborate to answer questions, build understanding, and solve problems.

Language

  • The standards expect that students will grow their vocabularies through a mix of conversations, direct instruction, and reading. The standards will help students determine word meanings, appreciate the nuances of words, and steadily expand their repertoire of words and phrases.
  • The standards help prepare students for real-life experience at college and in 21st century careers. The standards recognize that students must be able to use formal English in their writing and speaking but that they must also be able to make informed, skillful choices among the many ways to express themselves through language.
  • Vocabulary and conventions are treated in their own strand, not because skills in these areas should be handled in isolation, but because their use extends across reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

Media and technology

  • Just as media and technology are integrated in school and life in the 21st century, skills related to media use (both critical analysis and production of media) are integrated throughout the standards.

  • The K‐5 standards provide students with a solid foundation in whole numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, and decimals—which help young students build the foundation to successfully apply more demanding math concepts and procedures and move into applications.
  • The K‐5 standards build on the best state standards to provide detailed guidance to teachers on how to navigate their way through knotty topics such as fractions, negative numbers, and geometry and do so by maintaining a continuous progression from grade to grade.
  • The standards stress not only procedural skill but also conceptual understanding, to make sure students are learning and absorbing the critical information they need to succeed at higher levels — rather than the current practices by which many students learn enough to get by on the next test but forget it shortly thereafter, only to review again the following year.
  • Having built a strong foundation K‐5, students can do hands-on learning in geometry, algebra, and probability and statistics. Students who have completed 7th grade and mastered the content and skills through the 7th grade will be well prepared for algebra in grade 8.
  • The middle school standards are robust and provide a coherent and rich preparation for high school mathematics.
  • The high school standards call on students to practice applying mathematical ways of thinking to real-world issues and challenges; they prepare students to think and reason mathematically.
  • The high school standards set a rigorous definition of college and career readiness by helping students develop a depth of understanding and the ability to apply mathematics to novel situations, as college students and employees regularly do.
  • The high school standards emphasize mathematical modeling: the use of mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, understand them better, and improve decisions. For example, the draft standards state: “Modeling links classroom mathematics and statistics to everyday life, work, and decision‐making. It is the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions. Quantities and their relationships in physical, economic, public policy, social, and everyday situations can be modeled using mathematical and statistical methods. When making mathematical models, technology is valuable for varying assumptions, exploring consequences, and comparing predictions with data.”

Speaking and Listening

The CCSS for Speaking and Listening can apply to group discussions relating to musical instruction. 

History/Social Studies

The CCSS for History/Social Studies can apply to music history and the historical context of musical literature. 

Science and Technical Subjects

The CCSS for Science and Technical Subjects can apply to the process, structure, and skills involved in project-based learning, especially related to music technology projects.


SAMR Model for Technology Integration

 

Dr. Ruben Puentedura's SAMR model provides an excellent pathway to technology integration:

  • Substitution - Technology acts as a direct tool substitute, with no functional change.
  • Augmentation - Technology acts as a direct tool substitute, with functional improvement.
  • Modification - Technology allows for a significant task redesign.
  • Redefinition - Technology allows for the creation of new tasks, previously inconceivable.

Click here for Dr. Puentedura's SAMR Presentation